Volume 31. Number 35.

Author (s): ETER, Maghradze; GULNARA, Badridze; LALI, Chigladze


Background: Antioxidant compounds are widely used in medicine to protect the organism from the impact of various stresses and strengthen the immune system. The primary source of natural antioxidants is considered plant-based products. That is precisely why scientists are interested in extracting active compounds out of plant materials and use them. However, diverse resources of medicinal plants of Georgia is poorly studied and used as a source of antioxidants. Aim: The research aimed to study the antioxidant composition and total antioxidant activity of some dried medicinal plants sold in the pharmacy network in Tbilisi, Georgia. Methods: Several types of medicinal plants (3 berry plants and 3 herbaceous plants) sold in the pharmacy chain were chosen as the research object. These are Crataegus sp., Sorbus sp., Viburnum sp., Helichrysum sp., Leonurus quinquelobatus Gilib, Origanum vulgare L. Results: As a result, it has been found that the content of ascorbic acid and carotene in the studied plants is not so high to fill the daily intake of a man with an infusion prepared from one tablespoon. As for proline and the number of total antioxidants, all the plants we have chosen are high in content, considerably increasing their medicinal value. Discussion: The low amount of ascorbic acid and carotine found in studied plant, this increases their medicinal value, and in combination with other antioxidants/plants, the healing effect of the raw materials has been used. Conclusions: The studied plants are characterized by high levels of proline and antioxidant activity, so their infusions can be safely used as a source of antioxidants both in folk medicine and for the preparation of biologically active preparations.

Keywords: Medical plants, Antioxidant, Ascorbic acid, Proline, Carotene.

Year: 2023
Initial page: 1
Final page: 7
Link: Acessar
DOI: 10.48141/SJS.01_ETER_pgs_01_07.pdf
Author (s): GOMES, Bhetina Cunha; MARTINS, Thiago de Souza; MEGGIOLARO, Felipe Santos; FILHO, Antônio Carlos Simões de Santana; PEREIRA, Orlando dos Santos; PEREIRA, Cristiane de Souza Siqueira


Background: Due to population growth and increased use of water resources, there has been a need to implement management measures to control and monitor river parameters. Aims: This study aims to demonstrate the application of mathematical modeling using the QUAL-UFMG model for studying nitrogen concentration in the Paraíba do Sul River located in Volta Redonda. Methods: Through mathematical modeling, it is possible to identify areas of greater impact, evaluate the effectiveness of control measures, and propose a strategy to improve water quality and preserve the balance of local aquatic ecosystems. Results: The results obtained during the study showed that the nitrogen parameters and their derivatives are within the pre-established limits set by CONAMA. Discussion: During the modeling, it was observed that there is a tendency for nitrate levels to increase along the points, indicating good self-purification of the river. Organic nitrogen values increase along the points, which is due to the contribution of sewage discharge along the course of the river, as organic nitrogen and ammonia have a physiological origin in domestic sewage. Conclusions: Through the QUAL-UFMG model, it was possible to validate the conducted analyses and create future projections of the water quality in the Paraíba do Sul River along the studied points.

Keywords: Mathematical modeling; Nitrogen levels; Paraíba do Sul River; Water resources; QUAL-UFMG.

Year: 2023
Initial page: 8
Final page: 15
Link: Acessar
DOI: 10.48141/SJS.v31.n35.2023.02_GOMES_pgs_08_15.pdf
Author (s): Al-Kaaby, Hussein Humedy and AL-Ali, Zainab Abduljabbar Ridha


Background: Diabetes Type 2 is a complex disorder described by an imbalance between insulin resistance and secretion that induce liver glucose output. It has been shown that serum insulin levels are affected by a sperm plasma membrane and acrosome. Therefore, during insulin resistance spermatogenesis changes, diabetic patients detect testicular changes. Aims: This research aims to know the effect of diabetic type 2 on some aspects of fertility in men by studying the characteristics of the semen and some biochemical parameters in seminal plasma. Methods: This study was achieved at the Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes Specialists in Maysan province from February to November 2018 and included 45 men (30 diabetic and 15 healthy in the control group) aged 30 to 59 years. The patients were divided according to age into two groups, the first (30-39) and second (40-59) years, also divided by the duration of diabetes into two groups, the first (1-5) and second (6-10) year. Results: The pH of semen in the second age group (40-49 years) group and first duration (1-5 years) group were significantly decreased (P <0.05) in diabetes compared with the control group. Volume and viscosity did not have significant differences in patients compared to the control following the age and duration of diabetes. Liquefaction only in the first age (30-39 years) group significantly increased (P <0.05) compared to the control. The concentration of sperm, progressive motility, non-progressive and normal morphology decreased (P <0.05) significantly. While the sluggish, dead, and abnormal morphology significantly increased (P <0.05) in all diabetes groups compared with the control. The fructose and alkaline phosphatase values in the seminal plasma were not differing significantly in patients compared with the control. Zinc and glutathione values decreased significantly (P <0.05) compared with control in each age and duration of diabetes. Discussion: Insulin stimulates the Ledying cell function, defect insulin effect on spermatogenesis. Impaired sperm motility in a patient with D.M. might be attributed to many reasons, such as increased ROS level, altered mitochondria DNA, and decreased epididymal products. Conclusion: our measurement indicates that there is an effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on semen parameters and seminal plasma biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes, Semen, Parameters.

Year: 2023
Initial page: 16
Final page: 25
Link: Acessar
DOI: 10.48141/SJS.v31.n35.2023.03_KAABY_pgs_16_25.pdf
Author (s): VALLEJO, Mariana Guadalupe; BONTTI, Sergio; PATIÑO, Sol; PEREZ-GIRABEL, Rocío, QUINTERO, Cristián Andrés


Background: Antibiotic resistance is currently one of the biggest problems in public health. Infectious diseases are the second human death cause, and the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria increases mortality and morbidity rates. There is a growing clinical need for the development of new antibiotics. In this line, WHO issued an alert about 12 bacteria with an urgent need to develop new antibiotics. Aims: This review aims to analyze the current knowledge of their antibacterial activity against the gram-positive pathogens listed by WHO and their extraction techniques. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature in PubMed, searching publications describing the use of natural extracts as antibiotics over bacteria. The exclusion criteria consisted of limiting papers on natural extracts tested over the bacteria culture related to eleven selected bacteria, according to an alert issued by WHO in 2017, and seven plant extracts. Results: All the gram-positive bacteria present in the WHO alert have been treated, with different degrees of advance, with some of the plant extracts and plant-based compounds reviewed. Currently, they are in the preclinical stage. Edible herbs are more often used, as well as artemisia and wine byproducts. Discussion: Natural products based on plants have shown to be efficient in inhibiting bacterial growth, even in antibiotic-resistant strains. The classical extraction methods are still in use and have been improved with the available technology to improve efficiency and yield. Conclusions: Ongoing evidence shows that plant extracts and plant-based compounds are effective as antibacterial, with minimal effects on the host cell, a promising antibiotic source. Furthermore, they are sustainable, environmentally friendly, and renewable.

Keywords: natural extract, bacteria, pathogen, Antibiotic-resistant, infectious diseases..

Year: 2023
Initial page: 26
Final page: 43
Link: Acessar
DOI: 10.48141/SJS.v31.n35.2023.04_QUINTERO_pgs_26_44.pdf
Author (s): TEIXEIRA, Aline Maria dos Santos; SAMPAIO, João Alves; MEDEIROS, Marta Eloisa; GARRIDO, Francisco Manoel dos Santos


Background: Researchers are carried out to assess rocks containing potassium as an alternative source of fertilizers. These studies are important in reducing the external dependence of Brazil on this commodity. Phonolite is a rock of volcanic origin that has in its mineralogical composition the predominance of feldspar and has been potential to use as an alternative potassium source. The studied rock has 6% total-K but is unavailable to plants in natural rock. Aim: This project evaluated the effect of mechanical activation, wet and dry, on K availability for extractors different and its K leaching curves of phonolite from Poços de Caldas, MG, Brazil. Methods: Phonolite rock was subjected to mechanical activation for 30 and 60 min by wet and dry processes. Particle size distribution, XRD, and FTIR analyses characterized phonolite activated. These results were compared to the behavior of the rock with no activation. K availability (total; water-soluble; exchangeable, non-exchangeable, and structural) was determined in samples activated and no activation. K leaching curves were obtained by successive extractions with 0.01 mol L-1 citric acid and Mehlich-1 solutions to 1812 h and analyzed by FAAS. Results: The samples mechanical activation promoted a reduction in the intensity of the diffraction peaks. In the sample dry mechanical activation for 60 min, K released increased by 15% in relation to the no activation sample. K leaching curves were observed with similar behavior for the extractors and higher K availability after 235 h of total contact time. Discussion: Mechanical activation promoted a decrease in structural K and an increase in non-exchangeable K, released into the soil solution in the medium term. Since the mineralogical composition was not changed, the process action is more efficient in creating the structural defects suggested. K leaching curves corroborate these results, with a continuous and slow K released for a longer contact time. Conclusions: It was concluded that the phonolite activated by dry mechanical activation for 60 min increased K-released content compared with the wet process and ratified the possibility of the activated phonolite rock as a slow-release fertilizer.

Keywords: phonolite, alternative fertilizer, mechanical activation, potassium exchangeable, leaching curve.

Year: 2023
Initial page: 45
Final page: 60
Link: Acessar
DOI: 10.48141/SJS.05_TEIXEIRA_pgs_45_60.pdf
Author (s): GALIASSI, Gabriela Regina Rosa; GOMES, Aninês Assunção; TEIXEIRA, Erico Tasso Leite Barros; OLIVEIRA, Karine Silva de; CORINGA, Josias do Espírito Santo


Background: Sugarcane juice is an excellent substrate for the growth of a large and diverse microbiota, and poor quality of it can affect the health of consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the acidity parameters of the juice extracted from minimally processed sugarcane at three different points in Cuiabá - MT. Methods: In the juice samples, the following parameters were analyzed: Brix (soluble solids), pH, acetic (volatile) acidity, and sulfuric (total) acidity. Results: All the Brix values were above 18. The pH values were between 5 and 6. The total and volatile acidity was below 0.8. Discussion: The Brix values found in this study are similar to other studies (standard deviation of 1.7). The variety of sugarcane significantly influences the Brix and its sampling period. Inappropriate handling of sugarcane promotes the microbiological decrease of the final product. The pH values were satisfactory, but the changes in temperature in one of the juices (sudden change from 24 to 22.7ºC) caused its pH to differ from the value found for the others. The total and volatile acidity content is related to the storage time of the juice, which can be contaminated by bacteria and microorganisms, affecting the characteristics of the product. When the acidity value is more significant than 0.8, there was a change in these characteristics, which did not happen in this work. Conclusions: The Brix values indicate an adequate maturation of the analyzed juices. The pH values are in the ideal range for sugarcane juice. The volatile and total acidity is in the ideal range, indicating quality standards for sugarcane juice.

Keywords: Garapa. Sugarcane juice quality. Physicochemical analysis..

Year: 2023
Initial page: 61
Final page: 67
Link: Acessar
DOI: 10.48141/SJS.v31.n35.2023.06_GALIASSI_pgs_61_67.pdf
Author (s): DE BONI, Luis A. B.


Background: The Araucaria angustifolia is a prominent tree species indigenous to the southern regions of Brazil. The tree can be a source of different compounds of interest if properly used. Aims: This research aims to compare the alcoholic extraction of compounds from Araucaria angustifolia using two different methods, microwave-assisted extraction and maceration extraction. Methods: Alcahoolic extractions of compounds from the sawdust of Araucaria angustifolia were performed using microwave-assisted extraction and maceration extraction. The color was observed by eye inspection. The taste was observed by putting the samples into the mouth and tasting it. The olfactive test was conducted at hot and cold temperatures. Results: it was obtained red color solution, both from the bark and from the branch. The intensity of the color changed with the extraction method and time of maceration. The solutions tasted like "green wood". Discussion: MAE and Maceration extraction can provide extracts from the bark and branch of the araucaria tree. There is the possibility that the “green wood” taste of the MAE extract can be changed with the thermal treatment of the wood. Conclusions: microwave-assisted extraction can perform the faster extraction of compounds from Araucaria angustifolia than maceration extraction.

Keywords: Araucaria angustifolia, Microwave-assisted extraction, Maceration extraction..

Year: 2023
Initial page: 68
Final page: 74
Link: Acessar
DOI: 10.48141/SJS.07_DEBONI_pgs_68_74.pdf